Global Human Rights Defence

Amazon - Peru

In the ongoing struggle against climate change, the protection of ecosystems such as the Amazon becomes a catalyst of the problems (WWF, A changing Amazon?, n.d.) we face but it also gives us a glimpse of a possible successful approaches to it. 

The Amazonian basin and forest represent “one of Earth's most precious biological treasures and a major component of the Earth system” (Malhi, et al., 2008). Notwithstanding the biological interest of the region, it hosts numerous indigenous peoples, some completely remote from modern society, who have been interacting with their ancestral lands in a way that matches the definition of sustainable land management (IPCC, 2020). 

This close relationship with their environment puts them in a privileged position to teach us how to approach land and resources management yet it also puts them at primary risk as they are among the first to face the direct consequences of climate change. Nevertheless, indigenous peoples are still too rarely considered in public discourse on climate change (UN, Spring 2008). 

The situation in Peru and how the amazon is endangered by deforestation and the country’s policies. 


The deforestation processes that take place in the Amazonian countries, including Peru, regardless of government policies, affect the ecosystem throughout the region, even those countries without the Amazon.

This is due to the essential role of this green giant: supplying humidity to South America, regulating the region’s climate and capturing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main greenhouse gas.

Small-scale agriculture has traditionally been the main cause of deforestation in Peru, but not the only one. In recent years, the cultivation of oil palm, cocoa and coca has been gaining ground. The oil is used globally in food production, cosmetics and fuel.

The Peruvian government is taking a long time to build the mechanisms to monitor, control and punish deforestation for these and other activities (BBC, 2020).

Illegal Mining

Illegal gold mining also increasingly threatens the Peruvian Amazon. Peru is the largest gold exporter in Latin America and the sixth in the world. However, experts say that up to 25% of the country’s annual production comes from illegal mining.

Since 2006, Peru has experienced a new fervor for the exploitation of gold in the Tambopata Natural Reserve, one of the most biodiverse in the region, driven by the increase in the price of the metal and by the construction of the Brazil-Peru Interoceanic Route. Until today, Peru has lost around 8% of its original forest.

Killing of Indigenous

Indigenous leaders who denounce deforestation, land trafficking, illegal mining, as well as drug trafficking present in the Amazon and that affect it and the indigenous peoples are being murdered. Two of them from the Cacataibo ethnic group, Herasmo García and Yenes Ríos, were murdered in February of this year in Peru. This is the latest in a series of killings of indigenous leaders from the Amazonian regions Ucayali and Huánuco that, in recent years, have denounced invaders who cultivate coca destined for drug trafficking and land traffickers (Campuzano, 2020).

The leaders of indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon alerted the Government of death threats against indigenous leaders, however the government did not take the necessary measures to protect them. Before the murders, the Justice Minister and the Public Prosecutor’s Office were alerted that six leaders were threatened with death, but received no response. Leaders of the Cacataibo, Ashaninka and Shipibo ethnic groups also reported that eight indigenous communities were at greater risk: one of them was Sinchi Roca, in Ucayali, of which García, one of those killed recently this year, was a leader (Hallazi, 2021).

The forestry authority estimates that 42,000 hectares have been deforested on the lands of indigenous communities, mainly due to drug trafficking. Ricardo Pérez, a member of the Amazon Watch team in Peru, indicates that some of the threatened Amazonian apus have requested guarantees, but the police only give them protection in the cities. In the communities they are facing drug traffickers who want to plant coca, every day they are facing danger.

Since 2011, 220 leaders defenders of the Amazon have been murdered in Peru according to the report ‘Undermining Rights’, presented by the Observatory of the World Organization against Torture and the FIDH, and the National Coordinator of Human Rights.

Deprivation of the indigenous communities’ human rights

 The afore mentioned national policies and the consequences of climate change are generating severe repercussions to indigenous human rights, and what is crucial, they are putting the survival of these indigenous communities at stake. 

These activities affect their access to natural resources which are the keystone to their basic necessities to subsist. Oil extraction has been reported to affect the water and the soil (Survival C. , 2017): high levels of arsenic, mercury, iron, i.e. toxic substances are found in the rivers and the soil. Indigenous communities use the rivers for fishing but the fish stock is declining (WWF, Oil and Gas extraction in the Amazon: CAMISEA, n.d.) which leads to malnutrition. 

Furthermore, following the Universal Periodic Review of the Human Rights Council, it was found that children from these indigenous communities show high levels of lead and cadmium which can lead “to lung cancer, heart disease, kidney failure and brain damage” (Survival C. , 2017). Their lands, health (Survival, n.d.), physical integrity and way of living are in jeopardy and furthermore, killings, as mentioned above, are increasingly being reported (Peoples, 2020).  

While the indigenous communities have the right to enjoy their own culture, Peru’s activities endanger this right and breaches article 27 (UNGA, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1976) of the ICCPR. Furthermore, the ICESCR, which Peru is a party to, recognized the fundamental right of an adequate standard of living, which includes “adequate food, clothing and housing and, the continuous improvement of living conditions” (UNGA, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1976). 

Additionally, their fundamental rights to life, to humane treatment, to property, among others under the American Convention on Human Rights (IACHR, 1969) and the rights to mental and physical integrity, to liberty and security under the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNGA, UNGA 61/ 295 Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007) are being infringed. Finally, these activities infringe the provisions of the ILO Convention no. 169 (ILO, 1989) and the national Law no. 29785 granting the right of consultation (Graciela, 2011). 

In essence, this is evidence of serious violations of indigenous human rights and breaches of international law.

The worrying conclusion is that the government and its policies in Peru are not doing enough to preserve the Amazon and protect its indigenous communities. If these levels of deforestation and degradation are not reversed in the Amazon, the consequences of climate change could accelerate across the planet. 

It is therefore important that states, such as Peru, which has the 3rd highest number of indigenous people (IMRG, 2020) and the 2nd largest share of the Amazonian Forest (Atlas, 2017) increase their commitment to the fight against climate change (Association, 2018) and include indigenous communities in the public discussion. Such actions are also mandated both from their obligations under the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNGA, UNGA 61/ 295 Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007) to respect the rights of the indigenous peoples that walked these lands but also under their engagement as state party to the Paris Agreement (UNFCCC, n.d.).

The goal of Global Human Rights Defence (GHRD) is to encourage States such as Peru to uphold their international obligations and to grant the rights to all minorities, marginalized groups and to respect their environment. 


Association, C. C. (2018). Preserving Peruvian Amazon Rainforest: a societal challenge. 

Atlas, W. (2017, April 25). Countries Sharing the Amazon Rainforest. Retrieved from

BBC. (2020, February 18). Destrucción del Amazonas: las principales amenazas para la mayor selva tropical del mundo en los 9 países que la comparten. Retrieved from

Campuzano, O. P. (2020). Líderes indígenas bajo amenaza de muerte: “No queremos ser las próximas víctimas”. El Comercio.

Graciela, R. (2011). Peru: New Law Granting Right of Consultation to Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved from Library of Congress:

Hallazi, L. (2021). ¿Qué hay detrás de los asesinatos de líderes indígenas en la Amazonía peruana? El Pais.

IACHR. (1969, November 22). American Convention on Human Rights. Retrieved from Inter-American Commission on Human Rights:

ILO. (1989, June 27). C169 – Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169). Retrieved from International Labour Organization:

IMRG. (2020, July ). Peru. Retrieved from,per%20cent%20of%20the%20population

IPCC. (2020, January). Summary for Policy Makers. Retrieved from Special Report on Climate Change and Land:

Malhi, Y., Roberts, J., Beets, R., Killeen, T., Li, W., & Nobre, C. (2008). Climate Change, Deforestation, and the Fate iof the Amazon. SCIENCE, 169-172.

Peoples, F. (2020, October 06). Peru: Indigenous defenders to denounce the corruption and killings facilitating Amazon forest destruction to the IACHR. Retrieved from Forest People Programme:

Survival. (n.d.). Los indígenas no contactados de Perú. Retrieved from

Survival, C. (2017). Observations on the State of Indigenous Human Rights in Peru. The 28th Session of the United Nations Human Rights Council Universal Periodic Review. Retrieved from

  1. (Spring 2008). Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues.

UNFCCC. (n.d.). Process and meetings. Retrieved from The Paris Agreement:

UNGA. (1976, March 23). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Retrieved from

UNGA. (1976, January 03). International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Retrieved from

UNGA. (2007, September 13). UNGA 61/ 295 Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved from

WWF. (n.d.). A changing Amazon? Retrieved from

WWF. (n.d.). Oil and Gas extraction in the Amazon: CAMISEA. Retrieved from

Aimilina Sarafi
Pakistan Coordinator

Aimilina Sarafi holds a Bachelor’s degree cum laude in International Relations and Organisations from Leiden University and is currently pursuing a Double Legal Master’s degree (LLM) in Public International Law and International Criminal Law at the University of Amsterdam.
She is an active advocate for the human rights of all peoples in her community and is passionate about creating a better world for future generations. Aimilina is the coordinator for the GHRD team of Pakistan, in which human rights violations of minority communities in Pakistan are investigated and legally evaluated based on international human rights legal standards.
Her team is working on raising awareness on the plight of minority communities such as women, children, religious and ethnic minorities within Pakistan.

Marguerite Remy
Coordinator Middle East and a Legal Researcher.

Marguerite is the coordinator of the team of legal researchers focusing on the Middle East and a legal researcher herself.

She developed her expertise in international human rights law, international criminal law and humanitarian law during her double bachelor in law and political science at Sorbonne-Paris 1 University and her LLM in public international law at Leiden University. Particularly interested in the Middle East for years, Marguerite has acquired a good knowledge of the region and its human rights issues through various field experience, including internships in a cultural service of the French embassy and in a local NGO, as well as a semester in a university in the region. Currently, her main interests are accountability mechanisms for crimes committed during recent armed conflicts, notably in Syria, the Israeli-Palestinian situation and the Palestinian case at the ICC, and transitional justice issues.

Editorial Team Lead

Nicole has an MSc in International Development Studies with a focus on migration. She is passionate about promoting human rights and fighting poverty through advocacy and empowering human choice. Nicole believes that even the simplest social justice efforts, when properly nurtured, can bring about radical and positive change worldwide.

Mattia Ruben Castiello
Media quality coordinator

Mattia is currently in charge of quality checking and improving all the social media and website handles of the Global Human Rights Defence.
With a bachelor in Psychology from Spain and a master in Cultural Anthropology from the Netherlands, Mattia’s passion now lies in Human Rights in regard to the refugee and migrant crisis. Having lived his whole life in East-Arica, Mattia has had the opportunity to work with a vast amount of non-government organisations and health institutions. This has provided him with knowledge in diverse cultural understandings as well as interest in concerning global issues.

Jeremy Samuël van den Enden
Coordinator Bangladesh & Communication Officer
Mr. Van den Enden has a MSc in International Relations and specializes in inequality, racial dynamics and security within international diplomacy and policymaking. He studies the contemporary as well as modern historical intricacies of human rights in the global political arena. Furthermore, Mr. Van den Enden assists GHRD in revitalizing its internal and external communication.
Célinne Bodinger
Environment and Human Rights Coordinator

As the Environment and Human Rights Coordinator, Célinne is passionate about the health of our planet and every life on it.

Prerna Tara
Human Rights Coordinator

Prerna Tara graduated from Leiden Law School with an LLM in Public International Law. She practiced in the India before starting her Masters. She has assisted in pro- bono cases and interned at some of the best legal firms in India which has brought her face to face with the legal complexities in areas of corporate law, white collar crimes etc. Her work at GHRD deals with human rights research spanning throughout the globe.

Lina Borchardt
Team Head (Promotions)

She is currently heading the Promotions Team and University Chapter of Global Human Rights Defence. Her background is the one of European and International Law, which I am studying in The Hague. She has previously gained experience at Women´s Rights organizations in Germany, the Netherlands and Turkey over the past years.
She has been working for Global Human Rights Defence in the Netherlands since 2020. Her focus now is concentrated on the Human Rights and Minorities Film Festival and the cooperation of GHRD with students across the country.

Bianca Fyvie
Coordinator and Head Researcher

Bianca has widespread knowledge about social problems and human rights issues, with a specific focus on social justice in Africa and the empowerment of communities and individuals. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Social Work from Stellenbosch University as well as a Master’s degree in Social Work and Human Rights from Gothenburg University. She has participated in courses on Women’s Leadership at Stellenbosch University, and has worked with organizations such as AIESEC towards furthering the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. She also has experience in working directly with marginalized and vulnerable groups in South Africa while qualifying as a Social Worker.
Bianca is the coordinator for a group of interns doing research and reporting on Human Rights topics in a range of African countries. Her focus is on ensuring that these countries are monitored and have up to date reports and research conducted in order to allow relevant and updated information to be produced.

Alessandro Cosmo
GHRD Youth Ambassador
(European Union)

Alessandro Cosmo obtained his B.A. with Honors from Leiden University College where he studied International Law with a minor in Social and Business Entrepreneurship. He is currently pursuing an LL.M. in Public International Law at Utrecht University with a specialization in Conflict and Security. 
As GHRD’s E.U. Youth Ambassador, Alessandro’s two main focuses are to broaden the Defence’s reach within E.U. institutions and political parties, as well as mediate relations between human rights organizations abroad seeking European funding. 
Alessandro believes that human rights advocacy requires grass-roots initiatives where victims’ voices are amplified and not paraphrased or spoken for. He will therefore act on this agenda when representing Global Human Rights Defence domestically and abroad

Hiba Zene
Coordinator and Head Researcher

Hiba Zene holds a Bachelor’s degree in International and European Law from The Hague University and, has significant legal knowledge in the field of international human rights law. She actively advocates for the protection of all human rights of vulnerable minorities and marginalised groups. Focusing, specifically on the human rights of children and women in Africa.
Hiba is the coordinator and head researcher for GHRD Africa. As a human rights defender for GHRD she has examined and investigated various human rights abuses, violations and issues in Africa. She has led research missions addressing issues on Statelessness in Kenya, Child Abuse in Uganda, and Teen Pregnancy in Kenya.

Thaís Ferreira de Souza
Coordinator and Head Researcher (International Justice and Human Rights)

Senior Paralegal at PGMBM (Amsterdam office), working to bring justice for victims of wrongdoing by big corporations, with a focus on human rights and environmental law.
Previously, Thaís worked as a Visiting Professional at the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the Hague, providing legal advice on international human rights law and international criminal law. She also worked at the State Court of Justice of the Rondônia State (TJRO) in Brazil from 2013 to 2017, initially as a legal clerk and posteriorly as a legal advisor to judges. In 2016 she served as the regional representative of the Brazilian Institute of Criminal Procedural Law (IBRASPP) in the State of Rondônia, Brazil and during her bachelor’s degree, she worked as a Research Assistant at the Research Group ‘Ethics and Human Rights’ of the Federal University of Rondônia for over three years.

Fairuz Sewbaks
Coordinator and Head Researcher

Fairuz Sewbaks holds extensive legal knowledge regarding international human rights, with a specific focus on human rights dealings taking place in continental Africa. She holds a bachelor’s degree from The Hague University in public international law and international human rights and successfully followed advanced human rights courses at the Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria. She furthermore participated in the Istanbul Summer School where she was educated about the role of epidemics and pandemics in light of human rights.


Fairuz is the coordinator and head researcher for GHRD Africa. Her primary focus is to establish and coordinate long-term research projects regarding the differentiating human rights dealings of vulnerable and marginalized groups in continental Africa, as well as conducting individual research projects.

Priya Lachmansingh
Coordinator and Head Researcher, Political Advisor
(Asia & America)

Priya Lachmansingh is currently pursuing her bachelor’s degree in International & European
Law at the Hague University of Applied Science.
As GHRD’s Asia & America human rights coordinator and GHRD Political Advisor, Priya’s
prominent focus is to highlight human rights violations targeted against minority and
marginalized groups in Asia and America and to broaden GHRD reach within Dutch political
parties and as well seek domestic funding.

Fabian Escobar
Coordinator and Head Researcher

My name is Fabian Escobar, L.L.B. International and European Law candidate to The Hague University. I was born in Honduras and been living in The Netherlands, more specifically Amsterdam the last 8 years. I am passionate about Human Rights, Civil and Political Rights, fighting racism, and empowering women and ethnic minorities. In GHRD I am the coordinator for the Europe Team, I am thankful for being part of this team and that I have been given the opportunity to learn and apply my learning.