Global Human Rights Defence

COVID-19 intensifies religious discrimination in Pakistan

Volunteers distribute free food rations to daily wage workers and others amid COVID-19 pandemic. Photo: The Diplomat 

In Pakistan, the climate of terror and violence that ethnic and religious minorities face has remained relatively unaltered in recent years. However, COVID-19 has exacerbated the detrimental situation of religious minorities in Pakistan, even if one would think that a global pandemic would bring society together (Mirza, 2020a). Indeed, in Pakistan, there are numerous pieces of evidence of COVID-19 having the effect of compromising the rights of religious minorities, ultimately leading to abuses of the latter (Kelly, 2020). 

Religious minorities in Pakistan have been facing rampant discrimination amid the COVID-19 pandemic, from referring to the virus as “the Shia virus” to requiring Christians to recite the kalima to receive free food rations (Mirza, 2020a). The COVID-19 pandemic, which has resulted in over 950.000 total cases and over 22.000 deaths in Pakistan (Worldometers, n.d.), has shown that the country’s need to provide equal treatment to minorities is more pressing than ever (Joshi R. & Joshi E, 2020).

Accordingly, this article highlights several incidents that portray how the situation of Pakistan’s minority groups has deteriorated dramatically. 

Referring to COVID-19 as “the Shia virus.”

On the 1st and 2nd of April 2020, a conversation went viral across Whatsapp groups in Quetta, Pakistan. The participants blamed Hazara Shias for “going to Iran and bringing viruses to Pakistan” (Mirza, 2020b). This was plausible across Pakistani society because many Pakistanis regularly move in-between Iran and Pakistani, especially Shia pilgrims, traders and tourists (Mirza, 2020b). 

In the conversation, one of the speakers claimed that Hazara Shias were infecting other people, telling all his friends that if a Shia came into their office, they should inform that “the office is closed” (Mirza, 2020b). Also, a coordinated campaign on Twitter in which people referred to COVID-19 as the “Shia virus” spread rapidly (Mirza, 2020a). 

Shia community specifically targeted by quarantine measures 

Before any formal nationwide lockdown, the public authorities in Balochistan began to declare measures explicitly targeting and restricting the movements of Hazara Shias (2020b). Because the province of Balochistan shares a border with Iran, its provincial government established quarantine camps for Shia pilgrims returning from Iran (Mirza, 2020b). However, the conditions in the camp were not liveable: there was no real housing, no bathrooms, towels or blankets (Ellis-Petersen & Baloch, 2020). Mohammed Bakir, who was held in this camp for two weeks, described the camp as “no more than a prison, the dirtiest place I have ever stayed in my life” (Ellis-Petersen & Baloch, 2020). 

Nonetheless, this is not the only instance of the Shia community being targeted explicitly by quarantine measures. On the 12th of March 2020, the Inspector General of Police in Balochistan explicitly stated that “staff belonging to the Hazara tribe” should be immediately sent home to prevent the outbreak of COVID-19, implying that they were the carriers of the virus (Changezi, 2020). Many other incidents of targeted discrimination go unnoticed because they are not reported. According to Aman (2020), a prominent activist from the Hazara community, Shia Hazaras are clearly experiencing discriminatory treatment when they are sent on leave, impeding them from attending to their jobs while other colleagues practice their duty regularly. 

Denial of food rations to Hindus and Christians 

On the 28th of March 2020, members of the Hindu community were denied food ration bags in Karachi by one of the leading welfare organisations in the area, Saylani Welfare Trust (Digital Desk, 2020). The NGO, established in Karachi to aid homeless and seasonal workers, refused to provide food aid to Hindus because “the aid was reserved for Muslims alone” (Hindustan Times, 2020). Vishal Anand, founder and chairman of the Hindu Youth Council, stated that “when they saw our CNIC [identity cards], they refused to give the ration bags, saying it’s not for Hindus” (Mirza, 2020a). 

By the same token, Christians confirmed that the same organisation denied them food unless they recited the kalima, a declaration of Islamic faith (Mirza, 2020a). 

Against this background, Mirza (2020a), a news writer in The Diplomat, correctly links such discriminatory practices to the fact that even though these philanthropic organisations are operationally diverse and usually offer food to thousands of people regardless of their faith, the presence of local religious clerics has an unavoidable influence on the volunteers that are on the ground, who can eventually act in complete opposition to the organisation’s vision and ideology.

Women in Pakistan face more domestic violence during the COVID-19 outbreak

COVID-19 has further exacerbated Pakistan’s appalling situation for women and girls (Bano & Waqar, 2020). According to news reports released by the Punjab Safe City Authority (PSCA), domestic abuse and gender-based violence increased during the lockdown (Warraich, 2020). Hostility and violent behaviour towards women inside Pakistani households have escalated as a result of enforced immobility and the worsening of economic activity (Mahar, 2020). 

Moreover, women are remarkably more exposed to COVID-19, given that, according to the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, 80% of the employees in the health sector in Pakistan are women (Bano & Wagar, 2020). This has led women to work even when they are sick in many circumstances (Bano & Wagar, 2020). 


Coronavirus: Confirmed cases in Pakistan cross 1500, some blame Shias as pilgrims returning from Iran were among first cases (2020, March 29). OpIndia. Available at rn-from-iran-taftan-border/

USCIRF says “troubled” by denial of food to Pakistani Hindus, Christians amid Covid-19 crisis (2020, April 14). Hindustan Times. Available at pakistani-hindus-christians/story-E4XHUc6GOs2TfURkTelnFK.html 

Aman, M. (2020, July 9). “Go in Disguise to Receive Medical Treatment” – Religious Discrimination in Pakistan. Institute of Development Studies. Available at -religious-discrimination-in-pakistan/ 

Bano, K. & Waqar, K. (2020, October 1). Covid-19 and Gender Inequality in Pakistan. ICIMOD. 

Changezi, S.H. (2020, March 29). Social boycott? Dawn. Available at WRPUYOLX__YROkEPnbYlXkZ24oeqNfKJbTup_T2Ts98

Digital Desk (2020, March 30). Pakistan Denying Hindus Food Amid Coronavirus Outbreak? Sirsa Slams “Human Rights” Abuse. Republic World. Available at -amid-coronavirus-outbreak-sirsa-slams.html 

Ellis-Petersen, H. & Baloch, S.M. (2020, March 19). Pakistan coronavirus camp: “No facilities, no humanity”. The Guardian. Available at es-no-humanity 

Joshi, R. & Joshi E. (2020, July 8). COVID-19: A Catalyst for Minority Exploitation in Pakistan. Columbia University Journal of International Affairs istan 

Kelly, L. (2020, November 6). Covid 19 and the rights of members of belief minorities. Knowledge, evidence and learning for development. Available at nd_religious_minorities.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y 

Khokhar, S. (2020, March 30). Coronavirus: Karachi NGO denies food to poor Hindus and Christians. Asia News. Available at -Christians-49699.html 

Mahar, M. (2020, April 13). Increased Domestic Violence After COVID-19 Lockdown. Daily Times n/ 

Mirza, J.A. (2020a, April 28). COVID-19 Fans Religious Discrimination in Pakistan. The Diplomat. Available at 

Mirza, J. A. (2020b, April 17). Pakistan’s Hazara Shia minority blamed for spread of Covid-19. Institute of Development Studies. Available at vid-19/ 

Newman, A.J. (2020, January 28). Shi’i. Encyclopedia Britannica. Available at 

Warraich, S. (2020, June 28). Locked Down and Vulnerable. The News on Sunday. 

Worldometers (n.d.). Reported Cases and Deaths by Country or Territory. Covid-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. Available at


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Aimilina Sarafi
Pakistan Coordinator

Aimilina Sarafi holds a Bachelor’s degree cum laude in International Relations and Organisations from Leiden University and is currently pursuing a Double Legal Master’s degree (LLM) in Public International Law and International Criminal Law at the University of Amsterdam.
She is an active advocate for the human rights of all peoples in her community and is passionate about creating a better world for future generations. Aimilina is the coordinator for the GHRD team of Pakistan, in which human rights violations of minority communities in Pakistan are investigated and legally evaluated based on international human rights legal standards.
Her team is working on raising awareness on the plight of minority communities such as women, children, religious and ethnic minorities within Pakistan.

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Marguerite is the coordinator of the team of legal researchers focusing on the Middle East and a legal researcher herself.

She developed her expertise in international human rights law, international criminal law and humanitarian law during her double bachelor in law and political science at Sorbonne-Paris 1 University and her LLM in public international law at Leiden University. Particularly interested in the Middle East for years, Marguerite has acquired a good knowledge of the region and its human rights issues through various field experience, including internships in a cultural service of the French embassy and in a local NGO, as well as a semester in a university in the region. Currently, her main interests are accountability mechanisms for crimes committed during recent armed conflicts, notably in Syria, the Israeli-Palestinian situation and the Palestinian case at the ICC, and transitional justice issues.

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As GHRD’s E.U. Youth Ambassador, Alessandro’s two main focuses are to broaden the Defence’s reach within E.U. institutions and political parties, as well as mediate relations between human rights organizations abroad seeking European funding. 
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Hiba is the coordinator and head researcher for GHRD Africa. As a human rights defender for GHRD she has examined and investigated various human rights abuses, violations and issues in Africa. She has led research missions addressing issues on Statelessness in Kenya, Child Abuse in Uganda, and Teen Pregnancy in Kenya.

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Senior Paralegal at PGMBM (Amsterdam office), working to bring justice for victims of wrongdoing by big corporations, with a focus on human rights and environmental law.
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