Global Human Rights Defence

Human Trafficking in the Middle East
In 2018 exactly 1887 cases1 of human trafficking were reported in the Middle East2. The actual number could be much higher. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, most of the detected victims are adults, while children represent between 5 and 8% of victims. Human trafficking is mainly committed for the purpose of sexual exploitation, forced labour and exploitative begging in North Africa and the Middle East. Each of these forms of trafficking represented 30% of the detected victims in 2018. Most of the victims are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation and two-thirds of the victims for forced labour are female.3 The origins of the victims diverge in areas of the Middle East. In the Gulf Cooperation Council countries4, a large third of detected victims come from the region, another third from South and East Asia and the Pacific while 18% originate from East Africa. Meanwhile, in other Middle Eastern countries5, 41% of victims come from East Africa, 23% are from Eastern Europe and Central Asia and an equal proportion from the region itself.6
International instruments Several international documents exist defining the various forms of human trafficking and providing mechanisms for combating the issue. The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, is viewed as the most important one and includes clauses regarding the criminalization of the practice. It is one of the Palermo protocols, which were adopted by the United Nations in 2000 to supplement the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. The different forms of human trafficking are defined in the 1930 Forced Labour Convention, which is one of the eight fundamental conventions of the International Labour Organization; the 1926 Slavery Convention; and the 1949 UN Convention for the Suppression of the Trafficking in Persons and the Exploitation of the Prostitution. One of the main human rights instruments, the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights, also acknowledges and prohibits the various forms of human trafficking.7

Despite the existence of these documents, their implementation is yet to be perfect. For example, the Palermo Protocol provides an extensive view on fighting human trafficking, however, ratifying states do not extend the implementation procedures to fully combat the problem. There is a tendency for the ratifying states to draw focus on very specific issues without seeing it as a wider problem or addressing means of prevention. To effectively solve the problem, countries need to ratify all the meaningful documents together and follow the proposed guidelines leading to solutions. The United Nations also propose an alternative view of human trafficking as a human rights problem instead of merely a criminal act. This appears to be the suggested approach that would allow focusing on ‘preventing, protecting and prosecuting’ effectively.8

The two following sections of this article will focus on examining two cases of human trafficking in the Middle Eastern region.

The Kafala system A prominent mechanism of human trafficking used in the Middle East, specifically in the Arabian Gulf, is the Kafala system. Originally established during the early 20th century, it was meant to protect foreign workers immigrating to take job vacancies during the emergence of commercial trading and infrastructure building in the region. Nowadays, the legal framework is used to control migrant workers by extending rights of private employers to control a variety of job-related aspects of the employees. This often includes restricting movement outside of the host country and the possibility to change jobs, allowing for wages to be set below the minimum standard and the lack of contract standardization.9
Dubai construction workers having their lunch break in Dubai. Photograph: Piotr Zarobkiewicz (CC)
Due to the contrast of rights given to the employer compared to the migrant employees, the Kafala system is labelled to be a form of modern slavery. Given the fact that the system is mostly implemented as a matter of jurisdiction of the interior ministries of the host countries that do not regulate labour laws, workers are denied access to legal protection. In this way, they become an easy target for work-related exploitation. Additionally, the Middle Eastern countries fail to ratify international agreements that are necessary for migrant labour force protection. Even if a number of laws succeed to be created for that matter, enforcement often does not follow.10

Despite the prevalence of Kafala in the Arabian Gulf, the international attention drawn to it has proven to be a start for reformative measures. Over the years the control of the employer has diminished, which in turn allows workers to have more freedom in making decisions about their employment contracts or private matters without scrutiny of the ‘principal’. For example, Saudi Arabia now allows migrant workers to travel outside of the country’s territory without notifying the employer. The United Arab Emirates and Bahrain started providing more flexible working visas.11

Recently, by far the most scrutinized country in the region regarding the Kafala system is Qatar since it is set to host the FIFA World Cup in 2022. Around 30 000 migrant workers are allocated to work in infrastructure, hospitality and stadium creation for the incoming championship. Due to the extreme heat in Qatar and the lack of safe working conditions, a high number of laborers have suffered injuries or died.12 Last year, Human Rights Watch released a report after interviewing a sample of workers only to discover that together with not providing sufficient workplace protection, employers fail to pay or withhold salaries. This practice has become more apparent during the Covid-19 pandemic. The payment delays lead to workers having to live on the verge of starvation or in debt. These facts are troubling, especially given the 2017 promises of Qatar to abolish the abusive Kafala system.13 However, since the start of the preparation for the World Cup, Qatar has introduced the minimum wage requirements for migrant workers and allowed for more flexible employment alterations for those wishing to switch professions.14

ISIS and human trafficking

Displaced Yazidi people, fleeing violence from forces loyal to the Islamic State in Sinjar town, in 2014. File photograph: Rodi Said/Reuters
The fight against human trafficking is deeply shaped by the political context. When the political structure of a region is shattered in a war context, the options for preventing the recourse to human trafficking are rare, as illustrates the systematic slavery of Yazidis by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) in Iraq in 2014. In 2014, ISIS fighters invaded the Sinjar region of northern Iraq, which is home to the majority of Yazidis.15 Yazidis are an endogamous minority, mostly inhabiting in the Kurdish regions of Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey. Most Yazidis are Kurmanji-speaking, and even if the majority consider themselves ethnically Kurdish, Yazidis are religiously distinct from Iraq’s Sunni Kurdish majority. Based on a strong oral tradition, Yazidism is an ancient faith which associates some Islamic beliefs with elements of the ancient Persian religion called Zoroastrianism. Partly because of this combination of different belief systems, Yazidis are considered infidels by ISIS’s adherents. As ISIS fighters controlled the Iraqi city of Sinjar and surrounding areas in August 2014, they captured the Yazidi population and systematically divided them into three distinct groups: men and boys who had reached puberty; women and children; and boys between approximately 8 and 12.16

If men and boys converted to Islam, they could avoid execution and became ISIS captives. They were transferred to sites where they were forced to work. Yazidi women and girls were deemed property of ISIS and openly considered slaves. Most of them were sold to ISIS fighters in slave markets in Iraq and Syria. In order to circulate photos of the captured females, ISIS fighters used social media websites, such as Telegram. Once sold, Yazidi women and girls were used as sexual slaves and forced to work as domestic servants in the fighters’ homes. Around one-fifth of these females were contained in military-based holding sites, mainly for sexual exploitation purposes. The young children were transferred with their mothers when the latter were sold. Finally, the group of Yazidi boys between 8 and 12 years old were forcibly transferred to training centres and military camps in Iraq and Syria where they were renamed and treated as ISIS recruits, subject to forced training and indoctrination.17

Al-Dayel and Mumford argue that the scale and structural elements of ISIS’s slavery economy is new.18 The circumstances in which ISIS acted highlight new issues in the fight against trafficking. While states are best-placed actors to develop and implement an anti-trafficking strategy, such attempts are impaired when governmental authorities have lost control of their territories. This is still a challenge to be resolved to reach effective prevention of human trafficking in all places and political contexts.

The pathway in the fight against human trafficking 

In general, the fight against trafficking in persons mostly relies on the state’s ability to implement legislation, to respect the legal provisions, and, if needed, to prosecute human traffickers. States need to ensure that effective judicial mechanisms exist that allow victims to seek legal action. To promote an effective fight against the human trafficking issue and ensure prevention, the international community needs to draw attention to the abuses in order to encourage change and reforms. 

References

  1.  UNODC. (2020). Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, p. 31. UN publications.
  2.  In this article, the Middle East is considered as the countries of Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
  3.  Ibid, p. 171.
  4.  Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.
  5.  Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and the Syrian Arab Republic.
  6.  Ibid, p. 172.
  7.  Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2014, August). International instruments concerning the trafficking in persons. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Women/WRGS/OnePagers/IntInstrumentsconcerningTraffickingpersons_Aug2014.pdf
  8.  Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2014, August). International instruments concerning the trafficking in persons. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Women/WRGS/OnePagers/IntInstrumentsconcerningTraffickingpersons_Aug2014.pdf
  9.  Robinson, K. (2021, March 23) What is the Kafala System? Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/what-kafala-system#:~:text=The%20kafala%2C%20or%20sponsorship%2C%20system,well%20as%20Jordan%20and%20Lebanon
  10.  Robinson, K. (2021, March 23) What is the Kafala System? Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/what-kafala-system#:~:text=The%20kafala%2C%20or%20sponsorship%2C%20system,well%20as%20Jordan%20and%20Lebanon
  11.  Robinson, K. (2021, March 23) What is the Kafala System? Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/what-kafala-system#:~:text=The%20kafala%2C%20or%20sponsorship%2C%20system,well%20as%20Jordan%20and%20Lebanon
  12.  Robinson, K. (2021, March 23) What is the Kafala System? Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/what-kafala-system#:~:text=The%20kafala%2C%20or%20sponsorship%2C%20system,well%20as%20Jordan%20and%20Lebanon
  13.   Human Rights Watch. (2020, August 24). Qatar: Little progress on protecting migrant workers. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/08/24/qatar-little-progress-protecting-migrant-workers
  14.  Robinson, K. (2021, March 23) What is the Kafala System? Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/what-kafala-system#:~:text=The%20kafala%2C%20or%20sponsorship%2C%20system,well%20as%20Jordan%20and%20Lebanon
  15.  UN Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic (UN IICI Syria). (2016). The Yazidi Genocide, p. 103. Cairo Review of Global Affairs, 23, 103. Al-Dayel, N., & Mumford, A. (2020). ISIS and Their Use of Slavery. International Center for Counter-Terrorism. Retrieved from https://icct.nl/publication/isis-and-their-use-of-slavery/.
  16.  UN IICI Syria. (2016). The Yazidi Genocide, p. 104. Cairo Review of Global Affairs, 23, 103. Al-Dayel, N., & Mumford, A. (2020). ISIS and Their Use of Slavery. International Center for Counter-Terrorism. Retrieved from https://icct.nl/publication/isis-and-their-use-of-slavery/.
  17.  UN IICI Syria. (2016). The Yazidi Genocide, pp. 104-109. Cairo Review of Global Affairs, 23, 103. Al-Dayel, N., & Mumford, A. (2020). Al-Dayel, N., & Mumford, A. (2020). ISIS and Their Use of Slavery. International Center for Counter-Terrorism. Retrieved from https://icct.nl/publication/isis-and-their-use-of-slavery/.
  18.  Al-Dayel, N., & Mumford, A. (2020). ISIS and Their Use of Slavery. International Center for Counter-Terrorism. Retrieved from https://icct.nl/publication/isis-and-their-use-of-slavery/.

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Kenza Mena
Team Coordinator -China

Kenza Mena has expertise in international criminal law since she is currently pursuing a last-year Master’s degree in International Criminal Justice at Paris II Panthéon-Assas and obtained with honors cum laude an LLM in International and Transnational Criminal Law from the University of Amsterdam. She also holds a Bachelor’s degree in French and Anglo-American law. 

Since September 2021, she has been the coordinator of Team China at GHRD, a country where violations of human rights, even international crimes, are frequently perpetrated by representatives of the State. Within Team China, awareness is also raised on discrimination that Chinese women and minorities in the country and, more generally, Chinese people around the world are facing.

Kenza believes that the primary key step to tackle atrocities perpetrated around the world is advocacy and promotion of human rights.

Aimilina Sarafi
Pakistan Coordinator

Aimilina Sarafi holds a Bachelor’s degree cum laude in International Relations and Organisations from Leiden University and is currently pursuing a Double Legal Master’s degree (LLM) in Public International Law and International Criminal Law at the University of Amsterdam.
She is an active advocate for the human rights of all peoples in her community and is passionate about creating a better world for future generations. Aimilina is the coordinator for the GHRD team of Pakistan, in which human rights violations of minority communities in Pakistan are investigated and legally evaluated based on international human rights legal standards.
Her team is working on raising awareness on the plight of minority communities such as women, children, religious and ethnic minorities within Pakistan.

Lukas Mitidieri
Coordinator & Head Researcher- Bangladesh

Lucas Mitidieri is currently pursuing his bachelor’s degree in International Relations at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). As the GHRD Bangladesh Team Coordinator, he advocates for human rights and monitors violations across all minorities and marginalized groups in Bangladesh. Lucas believes that the fight for International Human Rights is the key to a world with better social justice and greater equality.

Nicole Hutchinson
Editorial Team Lead

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Gabriela Johannen
Coordinator & Head Researcher – India

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Célinne Bodinger
Environment and Human Rights Coordinator

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Angela Roncetti
Team Coordinator and Head Researcher- South America

Angela holds a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B) from Vitória Law School (FDV) in Brazil. Her research combines more than five years of experience conducting debates and studies on the rights of homeless people, the elderly, children, and refugees. Besides that, she also volunteers in a social project called Sou Diferente (I am Different in English), where she coordinates and takes part in actions aimed at the assistance and the emancipation of vulnerable groups in the cities of the metropolitan area of Espírito Santo state (Brazil).

Lina Borchardt
Team Head (Promotions)
(Europe)

She is currently heading the Promotions Team and University Chapter of Global Human Rights Defence. Her background is the one of European and International Law, which I am studying in The Hague. She has previously gained experience at Women´s Rights organizations in Germany, the Netherlands and Turkey over the past years.
She has been working for Global Human Rights Defence in the Netherlands since 2020. Her focus now is concentrated on the Human Rights and Minorities Film Festival and the cooperation of GHRD with students across the country.

Pedro Ivo Oliveira
Team Coordinator and Researcher
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Pedro holds an extensive background in Human Rights, especially in Global Health, LGBTQ+ issues, and HIV and AIDS. He is currently finishing his Bachelor’s Degree in International Relations and Affairs at the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Moreover, he successfully attended the Bilingual Summer School in Human Rights Education promoted by the Federal University of Minas Gerais and the Association of Universities of the Montevideo Group. Besides, Pedro Ivo has a diversified professional background, collecting experiences in many NGOs and projects.

With outstanding leadership abilities, in 2021, Pedro Ivo was the Secretary-General of the 22nd edition of the biggest UN Model in Latin America: the MINIONU. Fluent in Portuguese, English, and Spanish, Pedro Ivo is the Team Coordinator and Head Researcher of the Team Africa at Global Human Rights Defence. Hence, his focus is to empower his team from many parts of the world about the Human Rights Situation in the African continent, meanwhile having a humanized approach.

Alessandro Cosmo
GHRD Youth Ambassador
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Alessandro Cosmo obtained his B.A. with Honors from Leiden University College where he studied International Law with a minor in Social and Business Entrepreneurship. He is currently pursuing an LL.M. in Public International Law at Utrecht University with a specialization in Conflict and Security. 
As GHRD’s E.U. Youth Ambassador, Alessandro’s two main focuses are to broaden the Defence’s reach within E.U. institutions and political parties, as well as mediate relations between human rights organizations abroad seeking European funding. 
Alessandro believes that human rights advocacy requires grass-roots initiatives where victims’ voices are amplified and not paraphrased or spoken for. He will therefore act on this agenda when representing Global Human Rights Defence domestically and abroad

Veronica Delgado
Team Coordinator and Researcher- Japan, Sri Lanka & Tibet

Veronica is a Colombian lawyer who leads our team of Japan, Sri Lanka and Tibet. She holds a master’s degree in Public International Law from Utrecht University. She has experience in Colombian law firms. Here she represented clients before constitutional courts. She also outlined legal concepts to state entities such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ombudsman’s Office on international law issues.

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Wiktoria Walczyk
Coordinator & Head Researcher (Nepal & Indonesia)

Wiktoria Walczyk has joined GHRD in June 2020 as a legal intern. She is currently coordinator and head researcher of Team Nepal and Indonesia. She has an extensive legal knowledge concerning international human rights and is passionate about children’s and minorities’ rights. Wiktoria has obtained her LL.B. in International & European Law and she specialised in Public International Law & Human Rights at The Hague University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands. Moreover, she is pursuing her LL.M. in International & European Law and focusing on Modern Human Rights Law specialisation at the University of Wroclaw in Poland. In order to gain an essential legal experience, Wiktoria has also joined Credit Suisse’s 2021 General Counsel Graduate First Program where she is conducting her legal training and discovering the banking world. She would like to make a significant impact when it comes to the protection of fundamental human rights around the world, especially with regard to child labour. 

Fairuz Sewbaks
Coordinator and Head Researcher
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Fairuz is the coordinator and head researcher for GHRD Africa. Her primary focus is to establish and coordinate long-term research projects regarding the differentiating human rights dealings of vulnerable and marginalized groups in continental Africa, as well as conducting individual research projects.

Priya Lachmansingh
Coordinator and Head Researcher, Political Advisor
(Asia & America)

Priya Lachmansingh is currently pursuing her bachelor’s degree in International & European
Law at the Hague University of Applied Science.
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prominent focus is to highlight human rights violations targeted against minority and
marginalized groups in Asia and America and to broaden GHRD reach within Dutch political
parties and as well seek domestic funding.

Jasmann Chatwal
Team Coordinator & Head Coordinator: North America

Jasmann is a political science student at Leiden University who joined GHRD in May 2021 as an intern in team Pakistan. Now, she is the team coordinator for North America and is responsible for coordinating the documentation of human rights violations in USA, Canada, and America.